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Referencing: Chicago Manual Style

information on how to cite sources used in your research according to the Chicago Manual of Style

What is Chicago Manual Style?

What is Chicago Manual Style?

The Chicago Manual of Style, now in it's 17th edition (2017), started as a common set of stylistic rules created at the University of Chicago Press in 1891. CMOS is used primarily in the field of history and some social science disciplines.  It uses two different documentation styles that are similar in content but different in form:

  • the Notes-Bibliography system which is used primarily in history, literature, and the arts
  • the Author-Date system which is used primarily in the social sciences

This guide will cover the Notes-Bilbiography style.

NOTES features

  • make a note each time you use a source
  • footnotes are added to the bottom of the page; endnotes are added to the end of the chapter or document
  • the first note includes all information about the source (author's full name, title, publication information); subsequent uses of the same source need only include the author's last name, shortened title, and page numbers
  • "Ibid." (abbreviation of the Latin term ibidem which means "in the same place") can be used if the same source and pages are cited consecutively; using the same source but a different page should use "Ibid., page number

BIBLIOGRAPHY features

  • provide an alphabetical listing by author's last name of all sources cited and title it Bibliography
  • Indent all but the first line of each bibliography citation (hanging indent)
  • if there is no author, use the title instead
  • italicize titles of books and journals. Article and chapter titles are in quote marks
  • list the place of publication, the publisher's name and the year of publication
  • separate all major elements by periods

based on "Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition." Purdue Online Writing Lab, 2017, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/05/

Chicago Manual Basic Examples

Article from a journal

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, "Article Title," Title of Periodical volume, no. (publication date): page(s).

     1. Phillip Nash and Dan Fennell, "Which is Better? Australia or New Zealand?," Down Under Today 2,
no. 4 (2016): 24.

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Title of Periodical volume, no. (publication date): page(s).

Nash, Phillip, and Dan Fennell. "Which is Better? Australia or New Zealand?" Down Under Today 2,
     no. 4 (2016): 22-34.



Journal article in a database

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, "Article Title," Title of Periodical volume, no. (publication date): page(s),
doi:xxx [or http://url].

     1. Phillip Nash and Dan Fennell, "Which is Better? Australia or New Zealand?" Down Under Today 2,
no. 4 (2016): 24, http://www.aoia.com/articles/2321345.

     2. Lise Anderson, "Tips and Tricks for Teaching in the MYP," Pelita Harapan Journal 94, no. 5
(Nov. 9, 2017): 1284, doi:10.1126/PHJ.9452017.

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Title of Periodical volume, no. (publication date): page(s).
     doi:xxx [or http://url].

Anderson, Lise. "Tips and Tricks for Teaching in the MYP." Pelita Harapan Journal 94, no. 5, 9 Nov. 2017,
     pp. 1283-84. doi:10.1126/PHJ.9452017.
Nash, Phillip, and Dan Fennell. "Which is Better? Australia or New Zealand?" Down Under Today 2,
     no. 4 (2016): 22-34. http://www.aoia.com/articles/2321345.


Newspaper or Magazine article

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper/Magazine (City, State, Country - if not well known),
publication date, page(s).

     1. Editorial, Jakarta Post, May 1, 2016.
     2. Esther McIntyre, "English is My Thing," Lippo Daily News (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia), August 21,
2016, sec. A1.
     3. 
James Anderson, “Who Mattered and Why,” Lippo Magazine, December 31, 1999, 52. 

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Title of Magazine/Newspaper, edition, publication date, page(s).

Anderson, James. “Who Mattered and Why.” Lippo Magazine, December 31, 1999, 52. 
Editorial. Jakarta Post, May 1, 2016.
McIntyre, Esther. "English is My Thing." Lippo Daily News (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia), August
     21, 2016, p. A1.

 

Book

Footnotes: 

     1. Author's First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year), page number.

     1. Bruce Comrie, Ultimate Frisbee for the Masses (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia: SPH Press, 2014), 24.
     2. Fransisgo Kurniawan, Tips for Coaching Soccer, 2nd ed. (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia:
SPH Press, 2017), 67-68.
     3. Kurniawan, 23.  [Use just the author's last name and the page number for subsequent citations
from the work immediately previous]
     4. Comrie, Ultimate Frisbee, 15. [Shorten reference to just author's last name and a few words from
the title when citing a work previously cited but not the one immediately before]

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year. 

Comrie, Bruce. Ultimate Frisbee for the Masses. Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia: SPH Press, 2014.
Kurniawan, Fransisgo. Tips for Coaching Soccer. 2nd ed. Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia: SPH Press, 2017.


eBook

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication),
doi:xxx or http://url.

     1. Diane Fennell, 1001 History Assignments, Updated ed. (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia: SPH Press, 2016),
http://hdl.handle.net/2016/sph.07599.011.2.

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. Title of Book. (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication). doi:xxx or http://url.

Fennell, Diane. 1001 History Assignments. Updated ed. (Lippo Karawaci, Indonesia: SPH Press,
     2016). http://hdl.handle.net/2016/sph.07599.011.2.

 

Entry from a Reference Book

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, "Title of Entry," in Title of Book, edited by Editor's name (Place of Publication:
Publisher, Year of Publication), volume: page.      

NOTE:  For a source with four to ten authors, list all the names in the bibliography but only the first author's
name plus "et al." in the notes. 

     1. Tracy Radbone et al., "Safety on Stairs," in Encyclopedia of School Safety, ed. Jason Myers
(London: Safety Publications International, 2016), 2: 245.

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Book, edited by Editor's name, vol.: pages. Place of Publication:
     Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Radbone, Tracy, Lindsey Vander Ark, Phillip Nash, and Judy Comrie. "Safety on Stairs." In Encyclopedia of
     School Safety
, edited by Jason Myers, vol. 2: 245-256. London: Safety Publications International, 2016.

 

Web page

Footnote:

     1. Author's First name Last name, "Web Page Title," Title of Website, Publication date, URL.

     1. Robertus Wibowo, "Soccer Coaching Tips," Soccer, Soccer, Soccer, 2016,
http://www.soccersoccersoccer.com/tips/rw.html.

Bibliography:

Author's Last name, First name. "Web Page Title." Title of Website. Publication date. URL.

Wibowo, Robertus. "Soccer Coaching Tips." Soccer, Soccer, Soccer. 2016.     
     http://www.soccersoccersoccer.com/tips/rw.html.