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Referencing: APA Style

information on how to cite sources used in your research according to APA Style

Citing Books and eBooks

Book (one author)

Citation In-Text Example:  Bergman (1982) found that "the adult aging process made people older" (p. 120).

Reference Entry:  Bergman, D. (1982). The adult years: An introduction to aging (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.

Book (two authors)

Citation In-Text Example:  Despite recent revisions, early constructionist theory (DeJong & Palermo, 1974) continues to maintain its faithful following.

Reference Entry:  DeJong, W. B., & Palermo, D. S. (1974). Cognition and symbolic processes. Erlbaum.


Book (group author)

Citation In-Text Example:  According to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Mr. Dell exhibited many of the signs of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (APA, 1994).

Reference Entry:  American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). 

[Note: when the author and publisher are the same, you do not need to list the publisher]

eBook (two authors)

Citation In-Text Example:  Ryan and Jones (2011) include Pizza Hut and Pepsi as case studies in their analysis of emarketing campaigns.

Reference Entry:  Ryan, D., & Jones, C. (2011). The best digital marketing campaigns in the world. Kogan Page.


Kindle eBook (one author)

Citation In-Text Example:  Emma thinks that her friend Harriet should look for a perfect match (Austen).

Reference Entry:  Austen, J. (2012). Emma. Services LLC.

Chapter in an Edited Book (multiple authors)

Citation In-Text Example:  The research clearly indicates several taxonomies of inferences (DeJong & Palermo, 1974; Drew, Revlin, & Halldorson, 1990).

Reference Entry:  Drew, M., Revlin, R., & Halldorson, M. J. (1990). Bridging-inferences and enthymemes. In A. C. Graess & G. Bower (Eds.), Inferences and text comprehension (pp. 35-52). Academic Press.


Reference Book/Encyclopedia (one author)

Citation In-Text Example:  The types, which include schemata (Runia, 1993), stereotypes (Sharif, 1992), and several less significant forms, are reported.

Reference Entry:  Runia, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (15th ed., Vol. 26, p. 501). Encyclopedia Britannica.


Research/Technical Report (one author)

Citation In-Text Example:  This study examines the criteria elementary and secondary mathematics teachers use when assigning grades (Sharif, 1992).

Reference Entry:  Sharif, J. V. (1992). Teachers’ evaluations of student work (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-9). National Center for Research on Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 348357)