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Referencing: Chicago Manual Style

information on how to cite sources used in your research according to the Chicago Manual of Style

Citing Email Messages

Personal communications, including face-to-face, telephone, letters, email or text messages, direct messages through social media,  are not included in the bibliography.

Cite in notes as shown below.

     1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, Feb. 25, 2016. 
     2. Facebook direct message to author, May 1, 2017.
     3. Phillip Nash, WhatsApp message to author, Sept. 9, 2017.

Citing Blogs

Blogs are not included in the bibliography.

Cite in footnotes as shown below.

     1. Julia Manchester, "Flake Challenger: Trump 'Is What the Country Wanted'." The Hill (blog), August 27, 2017 (12:42 p.m.), http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/senate-races/348176-flake-challenger-trump-has-lofty-goals-that-we-should.
     2. Irishlass43, August 27, 2017 (12:49 p.m.), comment on Julia Manchester, "Flake Challenger: Trump 'Is What the Country Wanted'." The Hill (blog), August 27, 2017 (12:42 p.m.), http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/senate-races/348176-flake-challenger-trump-has-lofty-goals-that-we-should.

Citing Tweets

Cite social media content that is publically available according to the below examples.  For private content, including direct messages, is considered personal communication and follows different rules (see section on Citing Emails).  

List the real name of the author or group, if known, followed by their screen name in parentheses.  If only a screen name is known, use that in place of the author's name.

  • Notes:
         1. Kensington Palace (@KensingtonRoyal), "The Duke: 'I am Honoured to be Patron of the Thin Red
    Line Appeal' @ArgyllsMuseum," Twitter, October 24, 2016, 6:34 p.m., http://twitter.com/kensingtonroyal/status/790516722436542464.
     
  • Bibliography:
    Kensington Palace (@KensingtonRoyal). "The Duke: 'I am Honoured to be Patron of the Thin Red
         Line Appeal' @ArgyllsMuseum." Twitter<, October 24, 2016, 6:34 p.m.
         http://twitter.com/kensingtonroyal/status/790516722436542464.