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information on how to cite sources used in your research according to MLA, Chicago, or APA Style

How to Cite

There are many different citation styles and the one you use is often determined by the discipline.  

At SPH, the below styles are all used.  Most classes and subjects use MLA.  If you're not sure which one to use, ask your teacher.

used in most classes


used for DP History 


used for DP Psychology, 
Business, Econ 


Why Cite?

The IBO explains why proper citation is important in their guide on citing and referencing (p. 2). 

Proper citation is a key element in academic scholarship and intellectual exchange. When we cite we:

  • show respect for the work of others
  • help a reader to distinguish our work from the work of others who have contributed to our work
  • give the reader the opportunity to check the validity of our use of other people’s work
  • give the reader the opportunity to follow up our references, out of interest
  • show and receive proper credit for our research process
  • demonstrate that we are able to use reliable sources and critically assess them to support our work
  • establish the credibility and authority of our knowledge and ideas
  • demonstrate that we are able to draw our own conclusions
  • share the blame (if we get it wrong)

from p. 2 of "Effective Citing and Referencing."  International Baccalaureate Organization, Aug. 2014,